New Berggruen Institute Report: Citizens’ Panels Prove Deliberative Democracy Can Work for EU

Christopher Eldred

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Political scientist Carsten Berg evaluates the use of
randomly selected groups of citizens at EU’s Conference on the Future of Europe

The Berggruen Institute has released a new report evaluating the use of deliberative democracy as a core component of the recently-concluded Conference on the Future of Europe. Deliberative democracy is a process by which groups of stakeholders chosen from a population at random gather for mediated deliberation and decision making about policy.

Authored by Berggruen Future of Democracy Fellow Carsten Berg, the report finds that these European Citizens’ Panels were a milestone for EU governance, demonstrating the potential of deliberative democracy as a component of 21st century political processes. The report also explored shortcomings in the process and design of the panels, and recommended necessary improvements for future use of deliberative democracy in the EU.

“This process proved the ability of diverse groups of stakeholders to generate innovative policy ideas with honest and engaged deliberation often missing from election campaigns and legislative chambers,” said Berg. “With authoritarianism on the rise on Europe’s doorstep and in some of its national capitals, we can renew democracy by looking to the abilities in imagination and compromise to be found in our citizens.”

European Citizens’ Panels were a major instance of transnational deliberative democracy in which participants did not all speak the same language. The process gathered 800 citizens chosen at random from all EU member nations and language groups to deliberate and recommend changes to the EU’s constitutional structure. The deliberation was moderated by outside specialists selected for their subject matter expertise, closely resembling citizens’ assembly processes that have taken place in France and Ireland in recent years.

Major recommendations of the panels centered around measures to further centralize EU authority, such as by ending the unanimity rule, and transferring greater responsibility to the EU government over policy areas currently in national hands, such as health, social, and foreign policy. These ideas were adopted by the overall conference, whose recommendations may be implemented in the future by the EU Council. The EU Commission has indicated that it will organize deliberative assemblies to contribute to major EU policy debates in the future.

More work will need to be done to ensure that these future assemblies will be trustworthy features of a democratic process, the report notes. One shortcoming was that experts providing input to random citizens were selected by conference organizers, rather than by a neutral third-party organization. In addition, more efforts must be undertaken to control for selection bias among deliberators by encouraging participation by those who oppose EU institutions and governance.

“Altogether, the EU Citizens’ Panels were an encouraging landmark in our understanding of the possibilities of deliberative democracy,” said Dawn Nakagawa, Executive Vice President of the Berggruen Institute. “Governments at all levels should develop and implement the capacity for citizens’ deliberation as mechanisms for improving both legitimacy and decision making.”

This report is one of several Berggruen Institute initiatives related to deliberative democracy, an idea spearheaded by Institute co-founders Nicolas Berggruen and Nathan Gardels in their 2019 book Renovating Democracy: Governing in the Age of Globalization and Digital Capitalism. The Institute’s Future of Democracy program has been promoting deliberative democracy through initiatives such as Sense LA, which uses creative assemblies to better connect communities with local government in Los Angeles; and the Youth Environment Service (YES) campaign, which holds deliberative assemblies of young people around the world about addressing climate change in their communities.

“If anything, restoring the institutional equilibrium through mediated popular sovereignty is more critical now than when the American Founding Fathers crafted their design for republican governance, said Gardels. “To mend the breach of trust which has emerged between the institutions of self-government and the public, we must integrate social networks and more direct democracy into the system through new mediating institutions that complement representative government.”


About the Berggruen Institute:
The Berggruen Institute’s mission is to develop foundational ideas and shape political, economic, and social institutions for the 21st century. Providing critical analysis using an outwardly expansive and purposeful network, we bring together some of the best minds and most authoritative voices from across cultural and political boundaries to explore fundamental questions of our time. Our objective is enduring impact on the progress and direction of societies around the world. To date, projects inaugurated at the Berggruen Institute have helped develop a youth jobs plan for Europe, fostered a more open and constructive dialogue between Chinese leadership and the West, strengthened the ballot initiative process in California, and launched Noema, a new publication that brings thought leaders from around the world together to share ideas. In addition, the Berggruen Prize, a $1 million award, is conferred annually by an independent jury to a thinker whose ideas are shaping human self-understanding to advance humankind.

About Carsten Berg:
Carsten Berg is a political scientist working in the field of deliberative and participatory democracy at transnational level. He regularly advises national parliaments, EU institutions and international organizations, and has run several successful citizens’ initiatives on democratic reform and the protection of the environment. In 2002-2003, he was actively involved in the Convention on the Future of Europe, where he successfully contributed to the incorporation in the EU Treaties of the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI), the world’s first and only instrument of transnational participatory democracy. He has since been engaged in the promotion of transnational democracy as director of the ECI Campaign. He is co-founder of several organizations such as Democracy International and Democracy R&D. He is also very active in the development of new instruments of deliberative democracy, and co-designed the world’s first permanent randomly selected Citizens’ Assembly in Eastern Belgium. As Berggruen Fellow he is co-leading the Transnational Democracy Observatory at the European University Institute in Florence, which has carried out an in-depth evaluation of the transnational randomly selected citizens’ panels as part of the Conference on the Future of Europe.

composed by Arswain
machine learning consultation by Anna Tskhovrebov
commissioned by the Berggruen Institute
premiered at the Bradbury Building
downtown Los Angeles
april 22, 2022

Human perception of what sounds “beautiful” is necessarily biased and exclusive. If we are to truly expand our hearing apparatus, and thus our notion of beauty, we must not only shed preconceived sonic associations but also invite creative participation from beings non-human and non-living. We must also begin to cede creative control away from ourselves and toward such beings by encouraging them to exercise their own standards of beauty and collaborate with each other.

Movement I: Alarm Call
‘Alarm Call’ is a long-form composition and sound collage that juxtaposes, combines, and manipulates alarm calls from various human, non-human, and non-living beings. Evolutionary biologists understand the alarm call to be an altruistic behavior between species, who, by warning others of danger, place themselves by instinct in a broader system of belonging. The piece poses the question: how might we hear better to broaden and enhance our sense of belonging in the universe? Might we behave more altruistically if we better heed the calls of – and call out to – non-human beings?

Using granular synthesis, biofeedback, and algorithmic modulation, I fold the human alarm call – the siren – into non-human alarm calls, generating novel “inter-being” sonic collaborations with increasing sophistication and complexity. 

Movement II: A.I.-Truism
A synthesizer piece co-written with an AI in the style of Vangelis’s Blade Runner score, to pay homage to the space of the Bradbury Building.

Movement III: Alarmism
A machine learning model “learns” A.I.Truism and recreates Alarm Call, generating an original fusion of the two.

Movement IV: A.I. Call
A machine learning model “learns” Alarm Call and recreates A.I.Truism, generating an original fusion of the two.